Cellular damage can be reversible or irreversible in nature depending on the extent of injury . Cell injury Reversible Irreversible Cellular swelling Plasma membrane damage Nuclear chromatin clumping Lysosomal rupture ATP synthesis Ca2+ inuxoxidative phosphorylation Ribosomal detachment Nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis Glycogen depletion Mitochondrial permeability Fatty change b) Pyknosis. Infarcted bowel -- gross 40. all these things occur in various combinations. Remember, DNAses are activated in irreversible cell injury. D.Denervation atrophy. c) Karyolysis. It is followed by karyorrhexis, or fragmentation of the nucleus.

Reversible cell injury-results in swelling & amorphous deposits in mitochondria. karyolysis, karyohexis. Karyolysis - Fading of basophilia of chromatin. Hyperplasia. 1. Is necrosis reversible? The decrease in size of normally formed organ is: Answer. CELL INJURY. Swelling of endoplasmic reticulum. Reversible Injury -- Morphology Light microscopic changes - Cell swelling (hydropic change) . Mitochondrial changes in cell injury. REVERSIBLE change in which one type of adult cell (epithelial or mesenchymal) is replaced by another type - if stress/injury abates, metaplastic tissue may revert to original cell type . A). 17. Necrosis is an uncontrolled and passive process that usually affects large fields of cells whereas apoptosis is controlled and energy-dependent and can affect individual or clusters of cells. This observation is explained by microvascular necrosis which does not allow access of circulating leukocytes to these areas. 4. CAUSES , REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE CELL INJURY DR NABEIA BILAL CELL INJURY DEFINITION When the cell is exposed to an injurious agent or stress, a sequence of events follows that is loosely termed cell injury. Hence the nucleus . These changes occur due to nonspecific changes in the DNA as a result of DNAse activity. When cells adapt to injury, their adaptive changes can be atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, or metaplasia. B, Swollen mitochondrion. . Cellular swelling ii. Which of the following mechanisms of dz best accounts for reversible changes in the liver biopsy 34. Which of the following biochemical events . Created Date: 9/21/2011 12:59:05 AM . . 7. Which of the following is NOT a feature of reversible cell injury? Pycnosis. In some areas there is little inflammatory response. When a stress exceeds the cell's ability to adapt.

Injury Reversible Irreversible Swelling Fatty Reduced activity of E.Disuse atrophy. C. No change in apoptosis of cells. There is dissolution of nuclear DNA, which result in loss of affinity of nucleus to nuclear stain. It is reversible The organ affected will have increased weight Microscopy shows small clear vacuoles within the cytoplasm this is called hydropic change or vacular degeneration . Ischemic necrosis of the myocardium A, Normal myocardium. The normal concentration of sodium and chloride is lower inside than outside the cell, and the potassium levels are higher within the cell. Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis or apoptosis. A). ultrastuctural changes of necrosis. Which of the following types of necrosis is grossly opaque and chalky white . Mechanisms of Injury Is Karyolysis reversible? See Page 1. Key: d Ref: Cell Injury, Death and Adaptation. It is followed by karyorrhexis, or fragmentation of the nucleus. Mallory's hyaline is best associated with alcoholic liver disease; both Mallory . . Karyolysis: The nucleus undergoes lysis (disintegration) without pyknosis called karyolysis. Karyolysis and pyknosis are the only 2 types of nuclear changes c. In caseous necrosis the basic outline of the cells is preserved d. There is a decreased eosinophilia . 9/21/2011 13 Reversible and irreversible injury Karyolysis & karyorrhexis --micro. b) Redness. Necrotic cell injury is mediated by two main mechanisms; interference with the energy supply of the cell and direct damage to cell membranes. 1. karyolysis: decreased chromatin basophilia secondary to deoxyribonuclease (DNAase) activity. Reversible - reduced ATP, cellular . Which of the following is a reversible change: a) Karyorrhexis. Following a lethal injury, cellular reactions are initially reversible. Karyolysis Ghost cells . A. 9/21/2011 13 Reversible and irreversible injury Karyolysis & karyorrhexis --micro. Irreversible injury. it causes some pallor, and increase in Karyolysis B). 34 karyolysis. large nuclei . Hypoxia is the most common cause of cell injury which is caused due to ischemia. It is an irreversible condition of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell wall undergoing necrosis or apoptosis. Karyolysis. Reversible injury is characterized by generalized swelling of the cell, its organelles (especially mitochondria), and the cytocavitary network. hydropic change/swelling fatty change/steatosis seen with H&E Stain. Formation of amorphous densities in the mitochondrial matrix B. Is Karyolysis reversible? A 4 year girl has a broken arm. 5.

REVERSIBLE CELL INJURY. Decreased fatty acid oxidation 4. Karyolysis, the basophilia of the chromatin fades which appears to reflect loss of DNA because of enzymatic degradation by . C.Loss of endocrine stimulation. . a) 100-125. b) 135-145. c) 150-170. d) None of above

Karyolysis Cellular swelling Involvement of a large number of cells Chromatin condensation Associated inflammatory changes 3. Atrophy. Reversible cellular changes & accumulation Hyaline change - Homogenous , glassy , eosinophilic appearance in H&E stained tissue sections - Caused most often by nonspecific accumulations of proteinaceous material . comment: Necrosis ( Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, and Figure 4) and degeneration are considered to be parts of the continuum of cell damage, with necrosis representing irreversible cell damage and degeneration representing reversible cell damage.The light microscopic features of necrosis include nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, or karyolysis, cell swelling, loss of cellular detail, cell . d) Swelling of endoplasmic reticulum. Karyorrhexis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Apoptosis Karyorrhexis (from Greek karyon, "kernel, seed or nucleus", and rhexis, "bursting") is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a dying cell whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm. Increased apoptosis of cells. The mechanism of atrophy in this case is: A.Senile atrophy. Loss of adhesion to basement membranes. The area of infarction is the darker red (hypereosinophilic area) along the subendocardium (3). Swelling of endoplasmic reticulum B. Pyknosis C. Karyorrhexis D. Karyolysis E. Gangrenous necrosis 2-0/3 : 35 Q 2: A 69-year-old man has had difficulty with urination, including hesitancy and frequency, for the past 5 years. Cell injury is reversible up to a certain point If the stimulus persists or is severe enough from the beginning, the cell reaches a point of no return and suffers . It is followed by karyorrhexis, or fragmentation of the nucleus. Answer A Answer B Answer C Ans)ver D AnswerE Cellular swelling Reduction of ATP synthesis Reduced cellular pH Clumping of nuclear chromatin The latter include nuclear condensation (pyknosis), followed by fragmentation (karyorrhexis) and dissolution of the nucleus (karyolysis). It is an irreversible condition of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell wall undergoing necrosis or apoptosis. Note also the karyolysis that is characteristic of coagulation necrosis. After initiation of an acute inflammatory process third in a sequence of changes in vascular flow is: a) Vasoconstriction. Some irreversible changes associated with the nucleus (karyopyknosis, karyolysis, . Cellular swelling C). Cell injury can be reversible or irreversible ; Reversibility depends on the type, severity and duration of injury ; . Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Karyolysis: Irreversible: Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Karyorrhexis: Irreversible: Reversible or irreversible cell injury: Mitochondrial permeability: Irreversible: Created by: Asclepius Popular USMLE sets. Irreversible cell injury-results in swelling with vacuoles & large deposits. Oncosis, derived from the Greek word "swelling," is the common pattern of change in infarcts and in zonal killing following chemical toxicity, e.g., centrilobular hepatic necrosis after CC14 toxicity. and karyolysis (nuclear dissolution). Lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes- Is karyorrhexis reversible? Q.l . Cellular swelling B). breakdown of plasma membrane, accumulation of cytoplasmic amorphous material and karyorrhexis and karyolysis of nuclei were the most prominent features in . A second pattern (which is also seen in apoptotic cell death) is pyknosis, characterized by nuclear shrinkage and increased basophilia.

Karyolysis: This change results from the lysis of chromatin due to the action of endonucleases. Remember, DNAses are activated in irreversible cell injury. Which of the following is NOT a feature of reversible cell injury? Karyorrhexis is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a daily cell whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm. Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis or apoptosis. Questions and Answers. and karyolysis in renal tubular epithelial cells. . View questions only. 2.

Cellular Adaptations . Agenesis. Cellular swelling (synonyms: hydropic change, vacuolar degeneration, cellular edema) is an acute reversible change resulting as a response to nonlethal injuries. A cell can suffer various stress changes due to extreme environmental changes, including internal and external both. Is nuclear Pyknosis reversible? The changes are. Is swelling of endoplasmic reticulum reversible? Karyolysis (loss of basophilic/dark color) Pyknosis (nuclear shrinkage) Karyorrhexis (fragmented nucleus) Wikipedia/Public Domain. Reversible Injury: Cell Swelling: appears whenever cells cannot maintain ionic and fluid homeostasis (largely due to loss of activity in plasma membrane energy-dependent ion pumps). 88. Amyloid deposition in the liver would be rare, and would not necessarily accompany steatosis. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 8 September 2010 02:58 PM) 2005 Elsevier 38. Question 4. These adaptations include hypertrophy (enlargement of individual cells), hyperplasia (increase in cell number), atrophy (reduction in size and cell number), metaplasia (transformation from one type of epithelium to another), and . Question. 18 1. excess entry of free fatty acid into the liver 2. 2. It occurs when too little blood flows to the tissue. as a gold-standard contraceptive IUDs are a reversible, long-term contraceptive method used by more than 100 million women worldwide.

If tumor suppressor p53 was deactivated, which of the following would be expected to occur. 3. These changes occur due to nonspecific changes in the DNA as a result of DNAse activity. Karyolysis - fading of basophilia of chromatin - Types of Cell Death o Apoptosis - usually regulated, may be pathogenic, has a role in embryogenesis . Increased esterification . Click again to see term 1/55 Previous Next Flip Space Created by melissa_hs Cellular Pathology 2: Reversible and Irreversible Cellular Injury and Necrosis Dr. Costa (PATH) Answer A Answer B Answer C Ans)ver D AnswerE Cellular swelling Reduction of ATP synthesis Reduced cellular pH Clumping of nuclear chromatin Diminished generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) C. Formation of blebs in the plasma membrane D. Detachment of ribosomes from the granular endoplasmic reticulum Correct answer : A. Aplasia. Clumping of nuclear chromatin E). Pyknosis 2 Swollen mitochondria 3 The pH of the cell becomes acidic 4 Karyolysis 05 Degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum The whole cell will eventually stain uniformly with eosin after karyolysis. Karyolysis - Fading of basophilia of chromatin. Currently, we recognize two patterns, oncosis and apoptosis. E.Disuse atrophy. Intracellular polycationic molecules cause reversible swelling of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. 1. When deprived of oxygen, the pump is disturbed, and . Reversible change in response to stress Injury Reversible irreversible Cell death Normal Adaptation Injury Death. Which of the following is a reversible change: Answer. When there is an increase or persistence of aggression , there is the so-called irreversible lesion that is characterized by cell death that can be necrosis or apoptosis . Hence the nucleus . Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology questions and answers lect al Which of the following are signs of reversible cell injury? Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. centrilobular hepatocytes (shown in the image). Cellular swelling: Failure of Na, K ATPase . is difficult to appreciate with the light microscope; it may be more apparent at the level of the whole organ. Loss of RNA and digestion of proteins. It is an intracytoplasmic accumulation of water due to . 2 reversible cell injury patterns recognized at light microscopic level. Reversible cell injury occurs when the stress is mild to moderate and the cell can recover. 13: Thenormal value of sodium in the body ranges. . a) Karyorrhexis b) Pyknosis c) Karyolysis d) Swelling of endoplasmic reticulum. Unlike reversible cell injury, whose changes can be reversed if the injurious stimulus is removed, . Karyorrehxis. Pyknosis 2 Swollen mitochondria 3 The pH of the cell becomes acidic 4 Karyolysis 05 Degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum Question: lect al Which of the following are signs of reversible cell injury? When cells are injured, one of two patterns will generally result: reversible cell injury leading to adaptation of the cells and tissue, or irreversible cell injury leading to cell death and tissue damage. However, severe cellular injury leads to irreversible change and death of the affected cells. Laminated structures (myelin figures) derived from injured cell membranes can appear during reversible injury, but become more pronounced in irreversibly . Karyolysis is a complete dissolution of the chromatin of a dying cell due to enzymatic degradation by endonucleases. pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis were considered according to the criteria used by Tolbert et al. The changes are. Mechanism of Reversible cell injury- Following mechanisms are responsible for reversible cell injury-Decreased generation of cellular ATP Necrosis is the death of body tissue. This is a low-power photomicrograph of the left ventricular free wall extending from the epicardium (1) to the endocardium (2). ATPase is a sodium chloride pump and normally pumps sodium ions out of the cell together with chloride ions to maintain an optimal cell environment. It is usually preceded by pyknosis and can occur as a result of either programmed cell death (apoptosis), cellular senescence, or necrosis. 573 This contrasts with apoptosis, which is associated with selective permeabilization only of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Cytoplasmic swelling is also a feature of reversible cell injury. Necrosis which occurred secondary to vascular occlusion and affected lower extremities would most likely be called. Karyolysis- decreased basophilia due to dissolution of nucleus. or karyolysis, cell swelling, loss of cellular detail, cell fragmentation, and cytoplasmic . all these things occur in various combinations. LIQUEFACTIVE NECROSIS Characterized by . 2. Reversible Injury -- Morphology Light microscopic changes - Cell swelling (hydropic change) . Involvement of a large number of cells D). Splenic infarcts -- gross 39. cell injury results when the cell can no longer adapt to the stress, which can be reversible implies that once the stress is removed the cell can return to its original state irreversible when the stressful stimuli is excessive or persistent the cellular damage becomes irreversible and cells undergo cell death General mechanism of cell injury A, Normal mitochondrion has a double membrane and cristae. 1. Cytoplasm becomes homogenous and eosinophilic. What causes Necroptosis? The water accumulates in the internal space and between the inner and the outer mitochondrial membrane. - All of the reversible changes, plus: - Increased eosinophilia (pink color) in cells - Bigger mitochondrial densities - Nuclear changes (chromatin clumping, then pyknosis, karyolysis, or karyorrhexis) All this is important clinically because due to their leaky membranes, injured cells release enzymes and proteins into bloodstream. 3. Which of the following is a reversible change: A. The below quiz will help you see how much you know about the mechanism of cellular injury.

B.Pressure atrophy. Desegregation of ribosomes and failure of protein synthesis iii. Karyolysis - nucleus becomes pale and eventually disappears Pyknosis - nucleus shrinks, chromatin condenses, becomes deeply basophilic Karyorrhexis - nucleus undergoes fragmentation . 4 cytosolic changes in necrosis: 1. . Created Date: 9/21/2011 12:59:05 AM . Reduced cellular pH D). 6. the cells function, being reversible. Also, it will evaluate your understanding and give you some extra knowledge regarding cell damage. Document preview. 9. B, Myocardium with coagulation necrosis. Question. Directly beneath the endocardium is a . All of the following statements are true regarding reversible cell injury, except: A. Karyolysis (from Greek karyon kernel, seed, or nucleus), and lysis from lyein, "to separate") is the complete dissolution of the chromatin of a dying cell due to the enzymatic degradation by endonucleases. Karyolysis-basophilia of chromatin may fade. Keywords: cellular death; . Nucleus may show pyknosis, karyolysis or karyorrhexis ; 37. Can cause myocardial cells to cease contraction within 60 seconds . Enhanced fatty acid synthesis 3. Karyolysis: Nuclear remnants begin to dissolve by enzymatic action (appear pale) 4. KARYOLYSIS: This is essentially because of DNAse activity. Laminated structures (myelin figures) derived from damaged membranes of organelles and the plasma membrane first appear during the reversible stage and become more pronounced in irreversibly damaged cells. Defects in cell . It is an irreversible condition of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell wall undergoing necrosis or apoptosis. Which of the following is NOT a feature of reversible cell injury? Decreased stores of intracellular ATP. Reduced intracellular pH iv. Categories Medicoapps Masterclass Tags Cell injury, . Appearance of myelin figures and cell blebs i. karyolysis are the easiest ways to tell that cells are dead. Basically , necrosis is characterized by being exclusively pathological disruption of membrane and have to be a mechanism of collective death , whereas . The light microscopic hallmarks of reversible cell damage (degeneration) include cellular swelling, cytoplasmic vacuolation, perinuclear clear spaces, formation of cytoplasmic blebs, loss of normal apical blebs from Clara cells, and loss of cilia. Karyolysis - nucleus becomes pale and eventually disappears Pyknosis - nucleus shrinks, chromatin condenses, becomes deeply basophilic Karyorrhexis - nucleus undergoes fragmentation . B. Karyorrhexis is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a daily cell whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm. After her cast is removed 6 weeks later, her healing arm is markedly smaller than her normal arm. There is dissolution of nuclear DNA, which result in loss of affinity of nucleus to nuclear stain. First Aid: Microbiology 1 . Generally, the cells with mild injury result in reversible cell damage and there is no cellular death. This higher-power photomicrograph shows endocardium on the right side of this image. e) Gangrenous necrosis. Decreased apoptosis of cells. The frequency of cells with MNand other nuclear . Karyolysis Cellular swelling Involvement of a large number of cells Chromatin condensation Associated inflammatory changes 3. Associated inflammatory changes. Science; Anatomy and Physiology; Anatomy and Physiology questions and answers; lect al Which of the following are signs of reversible cell injury? Compare cell and tissue adaptation, reversible cell injury, and irreversible cell injury . discontinuities in membranes, mitochondrial dilatation and myelin figures (swirly things) nucelar status of busy cells. Reversible - reduced ATP, cellular . Reduction of ATP synthesis C). Parenchymal changes in viral cases varied from reversible non-specific necrosis to irreversible changes where fragmentation of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclei had occurred. The basophiliaof the chromatin may fade (karyolysis), a change that presumably reflects loss of DNA because of enzymatic degradation by endonucleases. ( Tolbert et al.1992). In reversible cell injury all are true except a. ATP depletion is responsible for acute cellular swelling b. Question 3. A pale nucleus (karyolysis) and a fragmented nucleus (karyorrhexis) are signs of irreversible injury. Loss of integrity. - All of the reversible changes, plus: - Increased eosinophilia (pink color) in cells - Bigger mitochondrial densities - Nuclear changes (chromatin clumping, then pyknosis, karyolysis, or karyorrhexis) All this is important clinically because due to their leaky membranes, injured cells release enzymes and proteins into bloodstream. Goljan High Yield. Nucleus loss. A cardinal feature of oncotic necrosis is irreversible mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized by permeability of both the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Karyorrhexis (from Greek karyon, "kernel, seed or nucleus", and rhexis, "bursting") is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a dying cell whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm. Reversible cell injury with cytoplasmi c & organelle swelling, blebbing & ribosome detachme nt Irreversible cell injury with rupture of membrane & organelles, & nuclear pyknosis Karyorrhexis Karyolysis. The likelihood of injury depends on the type of stress, its severity, and the type of cell affected. Cellular adaptation is the ability of cells to respond to various types of stimuli and adverse environmental changes. Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis or apoptosis. 12: Which one of the following cellular changes is reversible. Chromatin condensation E). Formation of amorphous densities in the Karyorrhexis is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a daily cell whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm. KARYOLYSIS: This is essentially because of DNAse activity. 2. 35 A 40-year-old man is pulled from the ocean after a boating .

The reversible changes include: i. A well-demarcated lesion with increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia, karyolysis, and intact tissue architecture is characteristic of: a. Caseous necrosis b. Enzymatic fat necrosis c. Coagulative necrosis d. Cloudy swelling e. Liquefactive necrosis.